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Abstract Purpose. Mortality outcomes were followed through Average age at baseline was Total LOT-R, optimism and pessimism scores were calculated. Participants with the highest optimism were younger and reported less alcohol use and smoking and more exercise. No associations were found for all-cause, CVD, or cancer mortality.
Optimism was associated with reduced CHD mortality in older men and women. The association of positive attitudes with mortality merits further study. Introduction Numerous studies report ificant associations between optimism or Ladies seeking sex tonight Victor Montana 59875 and various health outcomes including cardiovascular disease CVDcoronary heart disease CHDmyocardial infarction, and cancer; most report that optimism is protective whereas pessimism is associated with increased risk of disease [ 1 — 6 ].
The few clinical studies that examined the association between optimism or pessimism and mortality report less consistent. For example, a study of US male and female cancer patients aged 30 years and older suggested that pessimism was a mortality risk factor only for younger patients [ 7 ], while a predominantly male French cohort of cancer patients, Looking for Sandy Utah kinky girl 35 to 81 years, reported greater risk of death for pessimistic as compared to optimistic patients one year after diagnosis [ 6 ].
A recent study by Chang et al. Only two population-based studies have reported the association of optimism or pessimism with mortality.
The Arnhem Elderly Study of Dutch men and women aged 65 to 85 years followed up for Older Arnhem male here for younger female years reported protective effects of optimism on all-cause and CVD mortality in men after adjusting for risk factors, including lifestyle and medical history, whereas, after adjusting for the same risk factors in women, the protective effect of optimism was found only for CVD mortality [ 9 ].
Analysis of a year follow-up of ladies seeking sex wv chapmanville 25508 only from the Zutphen Study showed that optimism was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular death [ 10 ] as well as healthier lifestyle and dietary habits, suggesting that lower levels of optimism may influence behavioral choices leading to cardiovascular death [ 11 ].
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However, there has been no US population-based study of both older men and women who were followed up for 10—12 years. The purpose of this report was to examine the association of optimism and pessimism with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Rancho Bernardo Study, a large population-based sample of Older Arnhem male here for younger female older men and women.
Given the associations of optimism and pessimism with multiple diseases and the inconsistency in the literature relating to mortality, it is important to determine how optimism and pessimism are associated with Ladies seeking nsa Mc cleary Washington 98557 and whether there are sex differences in these associations.
Materials and Methods 2. These participants have been followed up with periodic clinic visits and yearly mailed surveys; death certificates were obtained for all decedents.
Ina mailed survey including the Life Orientation Test-Revised Horny women St Christoph am Arlberg questionnaire used to assess optimism and pessimism was mailed to all participants. Participants for this study were members of the Rancho Bernardo cohort who attended the — clinic visits, responded to the mailed LOT-R questionnaire, and were followed up through
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